These motives are not only important for the specific brand choice but also for the generic product choice. The expectation theory to managers will base their reward on individual achievement as to how better that individual relates input and output paying attention of any possible changes in the process to reduce risk.
Considering this perspective in a work place, what this indicates is that financial benefits will act as a significant motivation tool until an understanding that the money is a way of fulfilling different categories of demands basic needs.
The force model of expectancy theory attempts to capture motivational force to act by associating the expectancy of resultant outcomes and their individual valences. Inputs "what is given" are defined as "what a person perceives as his contributions to the exchange for which he expects a just return" Walster and Walster, Vroom, Work and Motivation, New York: In just about everything we do there is something that moves us to perform the action which involves some motivation allowing us to perform tasks or actions which produces some type of personal benefit as a result.
From this a manager would have to find a way of being able to match the needs of people with appropriate incentives. The product choice is the first to be made. As with Herzberg's two-factor model, an equitable relation as perceived by the consumer prevents the elicitation of dissatisfaction.
From this, it can be seen that managers have a strong ability and influence on their employees behavior. Satisfied employees of an organization tend to be self-motivated while dissatisfied employees will not motivate to achieve organizational objectives.
Dichter, Handbook of Consumer Motivations: Therefore, companies can avoid its employee dissatisfaction through its non-strict and flexible company policies, high quality of supervision, effective measures for job security and so on. That is, there is cognitive association between a specific product class or the buying of a certain product from a set of product classes, and the expectation that the product contributes to the attainment of a goal or the satisfaction of a motivational dimension.
Promotions and recognition fulfill the esteem needs and finally, interesting and challenging job opportunities fulfill the self-actualization needs of an employee. Individuals try to fulfill these five levels of needs through a hierarchical order. As a result of the fulfillment of an unwanted need such as promotion, that particular employee may under-perform as they have lost the job satisfaction they had prior to the acquisition of that motivational need.
An overview of these theories can be found in Van Raaij When the salary and other monetary rewards fulfill the physiological needs of an employee, health insurance and retirement plans fulfill the security needs.
This expectation is thought to be a subjective probability.
Further, motives become salient if a disparity exists between a desired goal state and the actual state on a motivational dimension. This theory has been introduced by Abraham Maslow in As indicated in Table 1, the summation of Ts and Tf provides the tendency or motive to achieve Tawhich may be derived from the given algebraic relationship: As the hygiene factors of colleagues and to an extent, supervision, fulfill the social need for interaction, the motivator recognition would lead to meeting the need for acceptance and belonging.
Managers could effectively incorporate the motivational techniques into developmental strategies by designing a work environment where employees would be able to develop personally as they work, in turn they could unknowingly acquire motivation.
Generally, this results in an increase in consumption expenditures, as aspirations and expectations become higher e. Unfortunately, this is only at the brand level, and even at that level, it fails to resolve a number of questions raised earlier.
As mentioned, everyone is different in their levels of satisfaction and motivational priorities, some of which would be unknown to the individual.
Herzberg suggests that motivators have the same value to all people. However, in expectancy theory the value of the motivators varies from person to person, while promotion might be sought by some, it is not by others.
Two ways exist to increase the tendency to achieve Ta: In most cases, the generic choice is more important and critical for the consumer; however, this seems to be a neglected area of research in marketing. These needs can be seen as essentials for survival making it logical to be place at the bottom of the hierarchy and as the lowest motivator.
The product class is evaluated in terms of the fundamental values of the consumer in the emotive areas of fear, social concern, respect for quality of life, appreciation of fine arts, religion, and other emotional feelings.Course Summary Business Strategic Human Resources Management has been evaluated and recommended for 3 semester hours and may be transferred to over 2, colleges and universities.
Both Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation are not total opposites of each other but are in fact very similar. Compare and contrast any two theories of leadership Compare and contrast Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory with Vroom’s Expectancy theory. Is it possible to combine these two theories?
More about Compare and Contrast Any Two Theories of Leadership Essay. Compare and Contrast two ethical theories. Words | 9 Pages. Questions on Organizational Behavior. Prepared by Dr.
Stephen Hartman, School of Management, New York Institute of Technology. 1. How have American companies suffered in recent years? ABSTRACT - Motivation-need theories are reviewed, their implications to consumer behavior investigated, and the various findings and concepts integrated in formulating a.
Course Summary Business Principles of Management has been evaluated and recommended for 3 semester hours and may be transferred to over 2, colleges and universities.Download